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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster virescens


Chinese name 綠楯海膽


Author Doderlein, 1885


Size 52 x47x 11mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 52x47x 11mm , taken in Balicasag Island , Cebu , Philippines .





 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Oral view(口面).




 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Lt. lateral aboral view(左側反口面).




 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Lt. lateral view(左側面).




 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽 , Lt. lateral oral view(左側口面).


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  • 常久以來,餅乾海膽科的分類,皆以反口面頂系的生殖孔數分為兩個屬,Laganum Link, 1807Peronella Gray, 1855Mortensen1948年出版的A Monograph of the Echinoidea Volume IV2. 中,Laganum列舉9種及一些變異標本Peronella列出15種及一些變異標本

 


Laganum的特徴為有5個生殖孔溝狀水管孔


 



 



 


 


Peronella4個生殖孔水管孔散佈於篩板。



 


 



 


 


不過英國Natural history museum A.B. Smith卻有另一種見解,將餅乾海膽科分為Neolaganinae Laganinae兩個亞科,其下各有幾個屬:


壹、Subfamily Neolaganinae:共分8屬,不過皆屬化石級之物。





    • Weisbordella


    • Neolaganum


    • Pentedium


    • Tetradiella


    • Durhamella


    • Wythella


    • Sanchezella


    • Cubanaster

貳、Subfamily Laganinae:共分6屬,其鑑別流程如下:



Sismondia:殼體內部的拱壁包含幅狀物與外側分支。



以下5個屬其殼體內部的拱壁較複雜,



再以生殖孔數目為4個或5個,分為兩大群。


()5個生殖孔,水管孔呈溝狀:



Laganum5個生殖孔,肛圍位於口圍與後緣之中點。




 





    • L. laganum (Leske 1778); Recent, Indo-Pacific.


    • L. centrale H. L. Clark, 1925; Recent, Tongatabu

 


Hupea5個生殖孔,肛圍接近後緣,瓣帶(petals)不超過其半徑的1/2







    • H. decagonale

 


Jacksonaster5個生殖孔,肛圍接近後緣,瓣帶(petals)超過其半徑的1/2







    • J. depressum (Agassiz, 1841); Upper Miocene-Recent, Indo-West Pacific.


    • J. fudsiyama (Doderlein, 1885); Miocene- Recent, Indo West Pacific.


    • J. pachycraspedum Nisiyama, 1968; Miocene, Japan.

 


()4個生殖孔,水管孔散佈於篩板上:





Peronella4個生殖孔,肛圍被基冕(basicorona)後第一、二間步帶板包圍。









  • P. peronii L. Agassiz, 1841; Recent, Australia.


  • P. macroproctes Koehler, 1922; Recent, Indian Ocean.


  • ?P. kamimura Cooke, 1954; Pliocene, Okinawa Islands.

 


Rumphia4個生殖孔,肛圍位於基冕(basicorona)後第一、二間步帶板之後。







    • R. lesueuri (Agassiz, 1841); Upper Miocene to Recent, Indo-Pacific.


    • R. ova (McNamara 1996); Pliocene, Western Australia.


    • R. ricta (Gregory, 1892); Pleistocene, Western Australia.


    • R. orbicularis (Leske, 1778); Pleistocene to Recent, Western Australia.


    • R. pellucida (Doderlein, 1885), Pleistocene-Recent, Japan.


    • R. hinemoae (Mortensen, 1948); Recent, New Zealand.


    • R. japonica (Mortensen, 1948); Pleistocene-Recent, Japan.


    • R. keinsis (Mortensen, 1948); Recent, Kei Islands.


    • R. affinis (McClelland, 1840); Recent; Indian Ocean.

 


 


雖然每個人都有一支喇叭,各吹各的調,但新的見解不失為另一分類學上的思考方向,僅提出供參考。此外,當你收集同科的海膽越多,則你會發現有許多的標本是介於其間的,很難去分辨其品種而很困擾,更何況也許有些小的標本更是難以辨識出種類,但那也是有趣之處


 


之所以對餅乾海膽科的重新檢視,是因為近日都在整頓手上此科的標本後產生的迷惑,所以想釐清對此科物種的混亂不清的認知與一些看法,因此經過這次對餅乾海膽科的整理後,相信對前些日子所po上的餅乾海膽科標本勢必有一番大修訂了。

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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum sp.


Chinese name


Author


Size 39x35x7mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 39mm, taken in Balicasag Island, Cebu, Philippines.




 


 


Laganum sp. , Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Laganum sp. , Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Laganum sp. , Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Laganum sp. , Oral view(口面).





 


 


Laganum sp. , Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Laganum sp. , Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Laganum sp. , Lt. lateral aboral view(左側反口面).




 


 


Laganum sp. , Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Laganum sp. , Lt. lateral oral view(左側口面).


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Diadematidae 冠海膽科


Scientific name Diadema savignyi


Chinese name 沙氏冠海膽


Author Michelin, 1845


Size 26x12.8mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 26 mm , taken in Balicasag Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Aboral view(反口面).





 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Oral view(口面).



 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Lateral view of interambulacra area.





 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Lateral view of Ambulacra area.




 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Diadema savignyi, 沙氏冠海膽, Primary spines

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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Cidaridae 頭帕海膽科


Scientific name Prionocidaris pistillaris


Chinese name


Author Lamarck, 1816


Size 15x9.5mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 15x 9.5mm , taken in Balicasag Island , Cebu , Philippines .


















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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Asteroidea 海星綱


Family Oreasteridae 瘤海星科


Scientific name Culcita novaeguineae


Chinese name 麵包海星


Author Muller & Troschel, 1842


Size 79x85mm


Description Taken from Penghu Is. Taiwan.


 


 


Ecological pohto (生態照) http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/lee-chitse/article?mid=9556


 

















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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Asteroidea 海星綱


Family Asteropseidae 鋸腕海星科


Scientific name Asteropsis carinifera


Chinese name 脊鋸腕海星


Author Lamarck, 1816


Size 88x87mm


Description Taken from Penghu Is. Taiwan.


























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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum sp.


Chinese name


Author


Size 25x24x 5mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 25mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Laganum sp., Aboral view(反口面).




 


 


Laganum sp., Oral view(口面).



 


 


Laganum sp., Lt. lateral aboral view(左側反口面).




 


 


Laganum sp., Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Laganum sp., Lt. lateral oral view(左側口面).



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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum decagonale


Chinese name 十角餅乾海膽


Author Blainville, 1827


Size 33 x31x 6mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 33mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Oral view(口面).



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Lt. lateral aboral view(左側反口面).



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Lt. lateral oral view(左側口面).


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Arachnoididae 蛛網海膽科


Scientific name Arachnoides placenta


Chinese name 扁平蛛網海膽


Author Linnaeus, 1758


Size 61x61x 8 mm


Description Sea Urchin, test diameter: 61 mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .


 


 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Aboral view(反口面).




 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Oral view(口面).



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Lt. lateral aboral view(左側反口面).




 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Lt. lateral oral view(左側口面).



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Posterior - oral view(後端).



 


 


Arachnoides placenta, 扁平蛛網海膽, Periproct (肛圍)


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster humilis


Chinese name 修姆楯形海膽


Author Leske, 1778


Size 119x109x 27 mm


Description Sea urchin test diameter - 119mm , taken from 南方澳, Northeast of Taiwan.


 


 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Aboral view(反口面).






 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Oral view(口面).





 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Lt. aboral lateral view(左側面).






 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Lt. oral lateral view(左側面).




 


 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Anterior petal (前瓣帶)



 


 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Posterior paired petals (後瓣帶對)



 


 


Clypeaster humilis, 修姆楯形海膽, Apical system (頂系)


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Peronella pellucida


Chinese name 透明餅海膽


Author Doederlein, 1885


Size 30x30x6mm


Description Sea Urchins, test diameter: 30mm, taken in Olango Island, Cebu, Philippines.




 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Oral view(口面).



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Oral view, Peristome (口圍) & Periproct (肛圍).



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Peronella pellucida, 透明餅海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).





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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum fudsiyama


Chinese name


Author Doederlein, 1885


Size 23x21x4mm


Description Sea Urchins, test diameter: 23mm, taken in Olango Island, Cebu, Philippines.




 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Oral view(口面).



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Laganum fudsiyama , Lt. lateral view(左側面).





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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster sp.


Chinese name


Author


Size 25x23x 5mm


Description Sea Urchins, test diameter: 25mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Clypeaster sp., Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Anterior paired petals (前瓣帶對)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Oral view(口面).




 


 


Clypeaster sp., Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Lt. lateral view(左側面).






 


 


Clypeaster sp., Lt. lateral view, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域).


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum depressum


Chinese name 薄餅乾海膽


Author Lesson, 1841


Size 42 x41x 8mm


Description Sea Urchins, test diameter: 42mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Oral view(口面).



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Laganum depressum, 薄餅乾海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).





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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster virescens


Chinese name 綠楯海膽


Author Doderlein, 1885


Size 55x50x 12 mm


Description Sea Urchins, test diameter: 55 mm , taken in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .




 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Posterior paired petals (後瓣帶對)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Oral view(口面).




 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Anterior paired petals (前瓣帶對)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster virescens, 綠楯海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).



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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster sp.


Chinese name


Author


Size 18.3 mm


Description test diameter - 18.3 mm , taken by lumon lumon net at depth of 20 - 30 meters in Olango Island , Cebu , Philippines .


 






 


 


Clypeaster sp., Aboral view(反口面).



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Oral view(口面).



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Lt. lateral view(左側面).










 


 


Clypeaster sp., Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)


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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Laganidae 餅乾海膽科


Scientific name Laganum decagonale


Chinese name 十角餅乾海膽


Author Blainville, 1827


Size 41 mm


Description Sea urchin test diameter - 41 mm , with spine, taken with tangle net at depth of 100-200 meters in Balicasag Island , Bohol , Philippines .




 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Aboral view(反口面).






 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Oral view(口面).






 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Laganum decagonale, 十角餅乾海膽, Lt. lateral view(左側面).




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Phylum Mollusca 軟體動物門


Class Gastropods 腹足綱


Family Conidae 芋螺科


Scientific name Conus distans


Chinese name 長距芋螺


Author Hwass, 1792


Size 82.4x 44.6mm


Description Southern Taiwan







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Phylum Echinodermata 棘皮動物門


Class Echinoidea 海膽綱


Family Clypeasteridae 楯海膽科


Scientific name Clypeaster sp.


Chinese name


Author


Size 51x46x 11mm


Description Sea urchin - test diameter: 50mm , test/spine, taken with tangle net at depth of 100-200 meters in Balicasag Island , Bohol , Philippines .




 


 


Clypeaster sp., Aboral view(反口面).




 


 


Clypeaster sp., Petaloid area (瓣狀區域)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Apical system (頂系)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Oral view(口面).



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Peristome (口圍) & Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Peristome (口圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Periproct (肛圍)



 


 


Clypeaster sp., Lt. lateral view(左側面).










 


 


Clypeaster sp., Posterior view(後端).




 


 


Clypeaster sp., Lt. lateral view(左側面), Petaloid area (瓣狀區域).



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